Mapping the Controversy in 1854
People and Places in the North and South
Use the Valley of the Shadow archive to investigate life in two American communities (one Northern, one Southern).
This lesson uses the Valley of the Shadow's searchable census for 1860. At that time, the total population of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, was 42,126. The population of Augusta County, Virginia was 27, 749. To compare statistics equally between the counties, multiply Franklin County figures by .65 or divide Augusta County figures by .65. For example, if Franklin County had 100 machinists, a count of 65 machinists in Augusta would represent an equivalent number of machinists within the community, adjusting for the population difference.
After investigating various aspects of the communities, answer the following questions.
1. List any conclusions drawn from the data.
2. What differences existed between the communities?
3. How might these differences cause conflict between two communities?
4. What advantages or disadvantages would either community have in supplying a war effort?
Differences in urbanization and industrialization led to conflicting needs for the North and South.
By 1860, the North had about two and a half times the population of the South (about 22 million compared to about 9 million, including the South's 3.5 million slaves) and was more urban and industrial. Of the top 25 cities by population in 1860, only three were located in the South: Louisville (ranked #12, with a population of 68,033), Charleston (#22, population 40,522) and Richmond (#25, population 37,910).
Compare the following views of Richmond and New York City, two important urban areas. Richmond was the third largest city in the South; it became the capital of the Confederacy. New York was the largest city in the North.
New York, New York
(Note: In 1860, New York County had a population of 813,660.)
(Note: The growth of the railroads in the mid-1800s led to Richmond becoming a commercial and industrial center. Richmond was also one of the most important slave markets in the United States.)
Play the original Oregon Trail game. Remember to play several times and post about your experience on the APUSH2013 Google Group.